These tablets essentially use chlorination as their method of purification. Sodium chlorite generate chlorine dioxide giving it the ability to treat water. Chlorination, as most know, is a common method of disinfecting water, and is commonly used by municipalities world-wide for this purpose. Chlorine destroys bacteria by destroying the cell walls of the bacterium/virus, killing the organism. Fortunately, when we drink chlorinated water, our digestive system quickly neutralizes the chlorine. So chlorine concentrations along the gastrointestinal tract are, in all likelihood, too low to cause damage. The tablets are wrapped in a metallic foil which makes it easy to store and there are no concerns of a glass bottle breaking. This is one of our favorite items to carry as a backup to our water filtration system.
The first step calls for the installation of 2 push fit elbows. Note these were the only two elbows that leaked on me, despite use of thread tape and applying what I felt was the right torque. You really need to seat elbows well with the top of the male tread well below the plane of the housing. The push fits are of the type that once you push the poly tube in, that's it. So, being they are elbows, there is no coming back to easily address leak at the body joint. (I had NO push fit leaks in the system)... DONT Panic if it leaks at the body. Very careful removal of the inline filter and the RO membrane ... full review
Membrane pore sizes can vary from 0.1 to 5,000 nm depending on filter type. Particle filtration removes particles of 1 µm or larger. Microfiltration removes particles of 50 nm or larger. Ultrafiltration removes particles of roughly 3 nm or larger. Nanofiltration removes particles of 1 nm or larger. Reverse osmosis is in the final category of membrane filtration, hyperfiltration, and removes particles larger than 0.1 nm.[11]
A Solar Still is a device that can be constructed in order to distill contaminated water into drinking water, or to pull condensation from damp resources in order to produce enough water for consumption. Solar stills can be a life-saving device if stranded in the desert without water or if lost at sea. This simple device uses the sun to evaporate contaminated water from a collection basin and collect the condensation in another basin. The condensation is essentially distilled and drinkable. It can be done with saltwater and can even be constructed to pull moisture from the ground if water isn't available at all. Solar stills can either be constructed out of simple materials or purchased and used for emergency. To learn how to make a solar still in a survival situation or to purchase one in case of emergency, read our detailed article about solar stills here.

In the literature, there is much debate and confusion over the usage of the terms coagulation and flocculation: Where does coagulation end and flocculation begin? In water purification plants, there is usually a high energy, rapid mix unit process (detention time in seconds) whereby the coagulant chemicals are added followed by flocculation basins (detention times range from 15 to 45 minutes) where low energy inputs turn large paddles or other gentle mixing devices to enhance the formation of floc. In fact, coagulation and flocculation processes are ongoing once the metal salt coagulants are added.[8]:74–5


To clean the filter, water is passed quickly upward through the filter, opposite the normal direction (called backflushing or backwashing) to remove embedded or unwanted particles. Prior to this step, compressed air may be blown up through the bottom of the filter to break up the compacted filter media to aid the backwashing process; this is known as air scouring. This contaminated water can be disposed of, along with the sludge from the sedimentation basin, or it can be recycled by mixing with the raw water entering the plant although this is often considered poor practice since it re-introduces an elevated concentration of bacteria into the raw water.
Filter out pathogens with pine trees. Certain plants are effective at removing pathogens from water, and pine trees are among the best. To remove viruses and bacteria from your water, remove a small branch from a pine tree. Strip the bark from the stick and place the bare stick into a bucket. Slowly pour the water, letting it trickle onto the stick and into the bucket.[10]
The addition of inorganic coagulants such as aluminum sulfate (or alum) or iron (III) salts such as iron(III) chloride cause several simultaneous chemical and physical interactions on and among the particles. Within seconds, negative charges on the particles are neutralized by inorganic coagulants. Also within seconds, metal hydroxide precipitates of the iron and aluminium ions begin to form. These precipitates combine into larger particles under natural processes such as Brownian motion and through induced mixing which is sometimes referred to as flocculation. Amorphous metal hydroxides are known as "floc". Large, amorphous aluminum and iron (III) hydroxides adsorb and enmesh particles in suspension and facilitate the removal of particles by subsequent processes of sedimentation and filtration.[6]:8.2–8.3
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