These survival tips can help you avoid becoming just another statistic. Accidents are the leading cause of death among U.S. men 18 to 50 years old, accounting for 37,000 of the roughly 148,000 annual fatalities. Some instances of unintentional death, to use the official term, are unavoidable—wrong place, wrong time—but most aren't. Staying alive requires recognizing danger, feeling fear, and reacting. "We interpret external cues through our subconscious fear centers very quickly," says Harvard University's David Ropeik, author of How Risky Is It, Really? Trouble is, even smart, sober, experienced men can fail to register signals of an imminent threat. Here we present 20 easy-to-miss risks, and how to avoid or survive them.
U.S. Army Major Carl Rogers Darnall, Professor of Chemistry at the Army Medical School, gave the first practical demonstration of this in 1910. Shortly thereafter, Major William J. L. Lyster of the Army Medical Department used a solution of calcium hypochlorite in a linen bag to treat water. For many decades, Lyster's method remained the standard for U.S. ground forces in the field and in camps, implemented in the form of the familiar Lyster Bag (also spelled Lister Bag). This work became the basis for present day systems of municipal water purification.
Filter Speed While there are reverse osmosis filters that can filter water as you need it, most of them take some time to refill. If you are replacing your regular tap water with purified water, look for a unit that can filter 50 or more gallons a day. If you're just using it for drinking water, you can opt for a unit with a slower refill rate and a smaller tank.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification process that uses a partially permeable membrane to remove ions, unwanted molecules and larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property that is driven by chemical potential differences of the solvent, a thermodynamic parameter. Reverse osmosis can remove many types of dissolved and suspended chemical species as well as biological ones (principally bacteria) from water, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be "selective", this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as solvent molecules, i.e., water, H2O) to pass freely.[1]
Pre – Membrane filters: The tap water is pollutant with harmful molecules that even we can’t notice from our naked eyes. Pre-membrane filters remove those materials that may damage the RO Membrane and cause a great loss. The solids like dust, rust gets eliminated from the water. This makes the water ready to filter more. Mostly RO water filtration systems have 3 pre-filters.
When particles to be removed do not settle out of solution easily, dissolved air flotation (DAF) is often used. After coagulation and flocculation processes, water flows to DAF tanks where air diffusers on the tank bottom create fine bubbles that attach to floc resulting in a floating mass of concentrated floc. The floating floc blanket is removed from the surface and clarified water is withdrawn from the bottom of the DAF tank. Water supplies that are particularly vulnerable to unicellular algae blooms and supplies with low turbidity and high colour often employ DAF.[6]:9.46
One way to disinfect water through solar purification is through the use of plastic bottles and sunlight. Remove all labels and paper from the bottles and ensure they have no scratches. Fill them with water to about three quarters full, shake for a half-minute to activate the oxygen, fill with water to the brim, cover, and then lay it horizontally and expose to direct sunlight (Water Benefits Health).
One way to disinfect water through solar purification is through the use of plastic bottles and sunlight. Remove all labels and paper from the bottles and ensure they have no scratches. Fill them with water to about three quarters full, shake for a half-minute to activate the oxygen, fill with water to the brim, cover, and then lay it horizontally and expose to direct sunlight (Water Benefits Health).
Remove heavy metals with cilantro. Just as pine trees are effective at removing pathogens, so too is cilantro excellent at removing heavy metals from water. Fill a pitcher with water and place a handful of cilantro leaves into the pitcher. Stir the water and let the leaves sit in the water for at least an hour. Remove and discard the cilantro before drinking the water.[11]

Countertop RO water systems are those systems that can be placed easily on the top of the Kitchen Table. These are designed for small families as they produce a small quantity of purified water. Countertop RO system is portable and inexpensive than most of other RO water filters. It is ideal for tenants who may not have permission to make changes in the house they live in.
My old RO filter (with UV) was not working right, even after replacing all the filters. So I was looking for a new RO system with good reviews and decided on 2 systems: Tap Master TMAFC Artesian Full Contact Reverse Osmosis with Alkaline by Perfect Water and iSpring 6-stage with RO Alkaline. The Tap Master had tons of great feedback, but so was iSpring (the non-alkaline model). The only reason why I ended up purchasing iSpring was the price.
Water Waste Unlike traditional water filters, not all of the water that is pumped through a reverse osmosis filter comes out the other side as drinkable water. Only a relatively small percentage—50 percent or less—is filtered, and the rest is considered waste. When possible, avoid units with 75 percent or more waste, especially if you are treating a high volume of water per day.
Many books and articles suggest this method as a safe alternative when lacking water filtration or purification methods. Without testing equipment some methods are difficult to prove. Norseman of Survivology 101 posted two great blogs which include testing done while he trained with the Norwegian school of Winter Warfare. The testing shows that the Mash or Seep showed zero improvement in lowering the bacterial count. Norseman is a retired Marine who held a Scout Sniper Survival instructor position at the First Marine Division, and SERE instructor.
A nice feature of the Sawyer system is the benefit of using the same filter as a water treatment bottle, inline on a hydration pack, as an ultra light drink straw and attached to a faucet with the included faucet adaptor. If purchased with the faucet adaptor kit, it can be configured to drink straight from the tap during boil alerts or in areas of natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes. The kit also provides hydration pack assembly kit for installing the inline filter on a hydration pack.
You do not want to wait until you are thirsty to begin gathering water, as the urge to drink directly from the contaminated source can become unbearable. Due to the negative effects of drinking water contaminated with Giardia and other bacteria/viruses, this is a bad idea. Becoming sick from drinking bad water, will further dehydrate you, worsening your situation.
Compared to reverse osmosis, filtration is considered effective when it comes to selective elimination of much smaller molecular compounds such as chlorine and pesticides. The other factor that makes filtration less costly is that it does not require a lot of energy needed in distillation and reverse osmosis. It is an economic method of water purification because little water is lost during purification.
In the literature, there is much debate and confusion over the usage of the terms coagulation and flocculation: Where does coagulation end and flocculation begin? In water purification plants, there is usually a high energy, rapid mix unit process (detention time in seconds) whereby the coagulant chemicals are added followed by flocculation basins (detention times range from 15 to 45 minutes) where low energy inputs turn large paddles or other gentle mixing devices to enhance the formation of floc. In fact, coagulation and flocculation processes are ongoing once the metal salt coagulants are added.[8]:74–5
The membranes used for reverse osmosis have a dense layer in the polymer matrix—either the skin of an asymmetric membrane or an interfacially polymerized layer within a thin-film-composite membrane—where the separation occurs. In most cases, the membrane is designed to allow only water to pass through this dense layer while preventing the passage of solutes (such as salt ions). This process requires that a high pressure be exerted on the high-concentration side of the membrane, usually 2–17 bar (30–250 psi) for fresh and brackish water, and 40–82 bar (600–1200 psi) for seawater, which has around 27 bar (390 psi)[8] natural osmotic pressure that must be overcome. This process is best known for its use in desalination (removing the salt and other minerals from sea water to produce fresh water), but since the early 1970s, it has also been used to purify fresh water for medical, industrial and domestic applications.
As science and technology continue to improve, more efficient systems in purifying water are invented, established, and standardized. In the United States, laws are passed to ensure that businesses and corporations who manufacture and distribute water adhere to strict purification standards. Local municipalities are also held to strict standards in order to ensure that communities are given clean water consistently.
The Metropolis Water Act introduced the regulation of the water supply companies in London, including minimum standards of water quality for the first time. The Act "made provision for securing the supply to the Metropolis of pure and wholesome water", and required that all water be "effectually filtered" from 31 December 1855.[41] This was followed up with legislation for the mandatory inspection of water quality, including comprehensive chemical analyses, in 1858. This legislation set a worldwide precedent for similar state public health interventions across Europe. The Metropolitan Commission of Sewers was formed at the same time, water filtration was adopted throughout the country, and new water intakes on the Thames were established above Teddington Lock. Automatic pressure filters, where the water is forced under pressure through the filtration system, were innovated in 1899 in England.[37]
Some water supplies may also contain disinfections by-products, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides. Specialized methods for controlling formation or removing them can also be part of water treatment. To learn more about the different treatments for drinking water, see the National Drinking Water Clearinghouse’s Fact Sheet Series on Drinking Water TreatmentsExternal.

Some water supplies may also contain disinfections by-products, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides. Specialized methods for controlling formation or removing them can also be part of water treatment. To learn more about the different treatments for drinking water, see the National Drinking Water Clearinghouse’s Fact Sheet Series on Drinking Water TreatmentsExternal.
The first step calls for the installation of 2 push fit elbows. Note these were the only two elbows that leaked on me, despite use of thread tape and applying what I felt was the right torque. You really need to seat elbows well with the top of the male tread well below the plane of the housing. The push fits are of the type that once you push the poly tube in, that's it. So, being they are elbows, there is no coming back to easily address leak at the body joint. (I had NO push fit leaks in the system)... DONT Panic if it leaks at the body. Very careful removal of the inline filter and the RO membrane ... full review
Cut the bottom of a plastic bottle off -- these can be found almost everywhere at no cost. Replace the bottle cap with a cheesecloth/fine cloth, tied on with a rubber band and secure. Place it on a cup, with the cloth facing towards the ground. Put fine sand, charcoal, coarse sand and rocks in the bottle in the order listed. Pour water inside. Capture the water that has now been purified.
Bioremediation is a technique that uses microorganisms in order to remove or extract certain waste products from a contaminated area. Since 1991 bioremediation has been a suggested tactic to remove impurities from water such as alkanes, perchlorates, and metals.[26] The treatment of ground and surface water, through bioremediation, with respect to perchlorate and chloride compounds, has seen success as perchlorate compounds are highly soluble making it difficult to remove.[27] Such success by use of Dechloromonas agitata strain CKB include field studies conducted in Maryland and the Southwest region of the United States.[27][28][29] Although a bioremediation technique may be successful, implementation is not feasible as there is still much to be studied regarding rates and after effects of microbial activity as well as producing a large scale implementation method.
The desalinated water purity is a function of the feed water salinity, membrane selection and recovery ratio. To achieve higher purity a second pass can be added which generally requires re-pumping. Purity expressed as total dissolved solids typically varies from 100 to 400 parts per million (ppm or mg/litre)on a seawater feed. A level of 500 ppm is generally accepted as the upper limit for drinking water, while the US Food and Drug Administration classifies mineral water as water containing at least 250 ppm.

Bioremediation is a technique that uses microorganisms in order to remove or extract certain waste products from a contaminated area. Since 1991 bioremediation has been a suggested tactic to remove impurities from water such as alkanes, perchlorates, and metals.[26] The treatment of ground and surface water, through bioremediation, with respect to perchlorate and chloride compounds, has seen success as perchlorate compounds are highly soluble making it difficult to remove.[27] Such success by use of Dechloromonas agitata strain CKB include field studies conducted in Maryland and the Southwest region of the United States.[27][28][29] Although a bioremediation technique may be successful, implementation is not feasible as there is still much to be studied regarding rates and after effects of microbial activity as well as producing a large scale implementation method.
Furthermore, animals have to drink and are known to visit water holes. This raises several concerns, 1) Animals are not very mindful of their toilet etiquette and 2) Predators will sometimes use water holes as a place of attack. If we were desperate, (dying of thirst) and had no way to purify the water, first we really should ask ourselves how we got ourselves into such a situation, then we would have no choice but to drink the water in hopes that we are rescued before the water borne disease kills us. Think outside the box, is there a way to get a makeshift bowl (wood, vegetation) and use hot rocks to boil the water. Is there any material around, bamboo etc that can be used to slowly bring the water to a boil. Build a multiple stage filter using sand, charcoal and sphagnum moss which has been known to contain some levels of iodine. If all that fails then we would be faced with the choice of drinking the untreated water. We know that moving water is preferable to standing water, but what can we do. We can walk around the water source, find the area with the least animal traffic and preferably a sandy shoreline. We can then dig a hole near the water deep enough to allow water to collect. The distance from the water source will have to be judged by the soil we are digging. The hope here is that the water will slowly seep into the hole and begin to collect while being "filtered" by the sand and rocks. At this point we have to get creative to get the water out. Perhaps make a straw out of natural materials or simply soak a bandana and squeeze it into our mouth. This would be a last resort and very risky.

Radium Removal: Some groundwater sources contain radium, a radioactive chemical element. Typical sources include many groundwater sources north of the Illinois River in Illinois, United States of America. Radium can be removed by ion exchange, or by water conditioning. The back flush or sludge that is produced is, however, a low-level radioactive waste.


You can get an unlimited supply of pure water right from your kitchen. It can remove 99% of harmful contaminants from the feed water. The quality of filtered water depends upon the feed water. If you have doubt on your water source or have a large number of microorganisms then you should not rely on this RO Unit as it does not have the advanced stages like UV Filter which can deal with the microorganisms.
Purifying water can be done through a variety of methods, like using a filter, treating with chemicals, or boiling. Water should be purified whenever you have reason to believe that it could be contaminated. Typically, this is necessary if you are camping in the wilderness or your home water source has been compromised. Whatever the reason, purifying water will remove any sediments and contaminants, as well as kill any germs, so that you can enjoy clean water without worrying about getting sick.
Water Waste Unlike traditional water filters, not all of the water that is pumped through a reverse osmosis filter comes out the other side as drinkable water. Only a relatively small percentage—50 percent or less—is filtered, and the rest is considered waste. When possible, avoid units with 75 percent or more waste, especially if you are treating a high volume of water per day.
Photo by mr.smashyContingencies in the wilderness abound, so it is important to plan for as many as possible. A compass will help you find your way; even better is a handheld GPS device. Flashlights and glow sticks help you find your way in the dark, and a flare gun will assist others in finding you during an emergency. For setting up camp, Paracord or rope, a tarp, duct tape, and cable ties are indispensable. Also vital is a good multi-tool, folding shovel, and gloves. Include waterproof matches, lighter, and fire starting kit; redundancy is a good thing in this instance. In a small tin, pack fishhooks and line, razor blades, sewing needles and thread, safety pins, nails, a small magnet, and some cash.
Filters have to be changed after every 6-12 months and RO-Membrane demands to change after every 2-3 years. The maintenance depends on the source of your water. If your water is more contaminated you may need to change it more than once every 6-12 months. The best part is transparent housing that helps you to identify the time when filters need to be changed.
Like most under sink reverse osmosis systems, you’ll need to clear enough space for the 3.2-gallon pressurized storage tank and the filter cartridges. But once you do, you’ll find that the rest of the installation is easy according to most reviewers. One user mentions that they move every 3 years but are happy to uninstall and re-install the system in each new residence due to the high performance and easy set-up of the iSprings RCC7AK.
Water, apart from shelter, can become the most immediate need in a survival situation. Drinkable water is a vital resource. Depending on the level of activity, and ambient temperature, a person can live about 3 days without water. Prolonged activity without proper hydration coupled with malnutrition will quickly lower chances for survival. Finding a way to create and maintain a source of clean drinking water is essential for both short and long term emergency preparedness. Whether you find yourself lost in the wilderness or in an urban emergency scenario such as Katrina and Toledo's water crisis, water is life. Just one day without this precious fluid and we begin to see the symptoms of dehydration.

The reverse osmosis membrane used in the RCC7AK is rated for up to 75 gallons per day, which is plenty to meet the needs of most households shopping for an under sink reverse osmosis system. It takes anywhere from 1 to 3 hours to fill the storage tank, but once the tank is full, you’ll have purified water ready and waiting under the sink. A lead-free brushed nickel metal faucet for countertop installation is included so you can bypass the tap and have fresh, clean water on demand.


While the intermittent nature of sunlight and its variable intensity throughout the day makes PV efficiency prediction difficult and desalination during night time challenging, several solutions exist. For example, batteries, which provide the energy required for desalination in non-sunlight hours can be used to store solar energy in daytime. Apart from the use of conventional batteries, alternative methods for solar energy storage exist. For example, thermal energy storage systems solve this storage problem and ensure constant performance even during non-sunlight hours and cloudy days, improving overall efficiency.[13] 
×