Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). Applicable to desalination. Heated seawater is passed along the surface of a hydrophobic polymer membrane. Evaporated water passes from the hot side through pores in the membrane into a stream of cold pure water on the other side. The difference in vapour pressure between the hot and cold side helps to push water molecules through.
A reverse osmosis system is typically installed under the sink, but you can install it where your water enters the house, so all your water is filtered for contaminants. RO filter cartridges provide the most effective filtration of any water purifiers. The membrane and filters remove up to 99 percent of contaminants such as arsenic, lead, ammonia and chlorine, as well as toxic fluoride, sodium, nitrates and heavy metals. The 6 stage RO filters provide a deep filtering process, leaving you reverse osmosis water, free of sediments and toxins. RO water is perfect for drinking, cooking and making ice.

Advantage is that you are not adding any chemicals to your water, which takes out the guess work as far as dosage. The disadvantage, if it can even be called that, is that you have to have a source of heat(fire, stove, etc.) in order to bring the water to the boiling point. Also we have to remember that this does not remove chemical such as petroleum or pesticides which can be harmful as well.


The reverse osmosis membrane of this system is equipped to process 75 gallons of water per day. Like other popular iSpring reverse osmosis systems, the RCC7AK-UV can easily be mounted under the sink. For the greatest peace of mind when drinking well water, take advantage of the purification power of reverse osmosis combined with the sterilization of UV light in this water filtration system.
Use sedimentation. When you don’t have access to anything that you can use to filter the water, you can remove large particulate from water by letting it settle. Collect the water in a bowl or jar. Leave the water to settle for one to two hours. During this time, heavier particles will sink to the bottom, and lighter material will float to the top.[3]
Gas hydrate crystals centrifuge method. If carbon dioxide or other low molecular weight gas is mixed with contaminated water at high pressure and low temperature, gas hydrate crystals will form exothermically. Separation of the crystalline hydrate may be performed by centrifuge or sedimentation and decanting. Water can be released from the hydrate crystals by heating[25]
While reverse osmosis systems are widely used for industrial and commercial purposes, smaller home units can be purchased and installed under the kitchen sink and dispensed through the faucet. Home RO units typically run on a 3-stage system which includes a carbon filter, RO membrane, and re-mineralizing filter for taste. Some systems can include 5, 7, or even 10 stages. While the additional stages offer extra benefits such as pH level balance and UV filtration, a simple 3-stage system has everything required to produce pure, drinkable water. RO systems require frequent maintenance and replacement of filters in order to keep it functioning properly. Read our article on reverse osmosis systems for home use for a detailed guide on how they work and which brands to use.

Membrane pore sizes can vary from 0.1 to 5,000 nm depending on filter type. Particle filtration removes particles of 1 µm or larger. Microfiltration removes particles of 50 nm or larger. Ultrafiltration removes particles of roughly 3 nm or larger. Nanofiltration removes particles of 1 nm or larger. Reverse osmosis is in the final category of membrane filtration, hyperfiltration, and removes particles larger than 0.1 nm.[11]


Filters have to be changed after every 6-12 months and RO-Membrane demands to change after every 2-3 years. The maintenance depends on the source of your water. If your water is more contaminated you may need to change it more than once every 6-12 months. The best part is transparent housing that helps you to identify the time when filters need to be changed.
Some small-scale desalination units use 'beach wells'; they are usually drilled on the seashore in close vicinity to the ocean. These intake facilities are relatively simple to build and the seawater they collect is pretreated via slow filtration through the subsurface sand/seabed formations in the area of source water extraction. Raw seawater collected using beach wells is often of better quality in terms of solids, silt, oil and grease, natural organic contamination and aquatic microorganisms, compared to open seawater intakes. Sometimes, beach intakes may also yield source water of lower salinity.
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