Energy-recovery pump: a reciprocating piston pump having the pressurized concentrate flow applied to one side of each piston to help drive the membrane feed flow from the opposite side. These are the simplest energy recovery devices to apply, combining the high pressure pump and energy recovery in a single self-regulating unit. These are widely used on smaller low-energy systems. They are capable of 3 kWh/m3 or less energy consumption.
Radium Removal: Some groundwater sources contain radium, a radioactive chemical element. Typical sources include many groundwater sources north of the Illinois River in Illinois, United States of America. Radium can be removed by ion exchange, or by water conditioning. The back flush or sludge that is produced is, however, a low-level radioactive waste.
We were looking for to replace an RO unit that was many years old and were impressed with iSpring's RO / UV / Ph / multi-filter options, with the More-Is-Better paradigm. Patience is required for the multipart installation because the directions are vague. We also had to run a GFCI receptacle for the UV. The UV does warm the water a bit but we remedied this by running an additional line to the fridge for cold water and ice. The system was flushed a half dozen time over two days. The initial glass was cloudy but that cleared to show some carbon from that particular filter. The water taste great and we highly recommend this drinking water system.

The first part of the purification tag team must eliminate microorganisms, like harmful bacteria and parasites. There are a handful of tried and true methods for doing this. The most familiar is boiling. Simply bringing water up to its boiling point of 212 degrees Fahrenheit will kill almost all microorganisms, so just a few minutes of boiling will do the job.